Tiger’s Eye is a form of Chalcedony quartz, but is what is a known in mineralogy as a pseudomorph. The term comes from the Greek for "false form." Pseudomorphs form when one mineral replaces another. It began as the fibrous blue mineral called Crocidolite, which is made up of iron and sodium. The Crocidolite was gradually transformed into when quartz becomes embedded between the fibers of Crocidolite. This process can result in two different gemstones: a blue stone called Hawk's Eye or the golden brown stone called Tiger's Eye. Gentle heating can turn Tiger’s Eye a rich red color. In the course of the process, the Crocidolite is completely dissolved. But the quartz takes on the fibrous formations and this creates the parallel lines within the gem which gives it that effect of shifting plays of light; it is one of the "chatoyant" gemstones. Chatoyancy exhibits a changeable silky luster as light is reflected within the thin parallel fibrous bands.
Tiger's Eye is mined in South Africa, Australia, the USA, Canada, India, Namibia, and Burma.
Ancient Roman soldiers were said to carry Tiger’s Eye stones for protection in battle. Common folklore rumors Tiger's Eye may increase focus and mental clarity, and is a good stone for business people.
The name Topaz might have originated in Eastern culture meaning “to seek”. It may also be traced to the Sanskrit word meaning "fire". Topaz is a silicate mineral of aluminum and fluorine. Pure topaz is colorless and transparent but is usually tinted by impurities; typical Topaz is wine, yellow, pale gray or reddish-orange, blue brown. It can also be forced to white, pale green, blue, gold, pink (rare), reddish-yellow or opaque to transparent/ translucent.
Yellow, Golden and Orange Topazes are the traditional November birthstone, are thought of as "the symbol of friendship", and Orange Topaz is the declared State gemstone of Utah.
Imperial Topaz is yellow, pink (rare, if natural) or pink orange.
Blue Topaz is the traditional birthstone for the month of December, and is the declared State gemstone for Texas. Naturally occurring blue topaz is rare. Typically, colorless, gray or pale yellow and blue raw Topaz is heat treated and irradiated to produce a more desired darker blue.
Mystic Topaz is colorless Topaz which has been artificially coated giving it the desired rainbow effect.
Notable Topaz deposits are found in Brazil, Pakistan, California, Ural Mountains, Russia, Mexico and Utah.
Topaz has many references in history. The Egyptians believed that Topaz was colored with the golden glow of the mighty Sun God Ra. This made Topaz a very powerful amulet that protected the faithful against harm. The Romans associated Topaz with Jupiter, their God of the Sun. In ancient times it was believed that Topaz helps to improve the eyesight. The Greeks trusted Topaz's supernatural power to increase strength and make its wearer invisible in times of emergency. Topaz was also said to change color in the presence of poisoned food or drink.
The gemstone Tourmaline is the official and traditional birthstone for October and as the stone for the Zodiac sign of Leo. Known for centuries, Tourmaline first gained popularity when the Dutch began to import it in the early 17th century from Sri Lanka . Tourmaline was known by a Sinhalese name, Turamali, which is believed to mean "stone with mixed colors." Tourmaline has strong pleochroism, which means you can see different colors or depths of color when viewed at different angles. Some crystals form with multiple colors; one popular form is “Watermelon Tourmaline,” that displays both pink and green. There is also rare red Rubellite; Indicolite with bluish green colors; Chrome Tourmaline is green, but is different from the more common greens as it's rare rich green color is trace elements of chromium; Canary Tourmaline is bright yellow Tourmaline from Malawi; Schorl is the name given to black Tourmalines which are the most commonly found; and the most costly type is neon greenish-blue color Paraiba, named after the state in Brazil where is is found.
Tourmalines commonly comes from Tanzania, Madagascar, Brazil, Australia, Sri Lanka, the U.S., and Russia,Tourmalines in folklore are said to enhance creativity among artists and increase self-confidence. They are rumored also to help relax the mind and body.
Turquoise is an opaque gemstone with rich color variations from green and greenish blue to bright sky blue shades. Turquoise has been an important gemstone in many cultures for thousands of years. The name turquoise is said to have originated when was gem was first brought to Europe by traders from Asia Minor, even though the traders were not necessarily of Turkish origin. Most likely Turquoise from that time came from mines in Egypt, not Turkey. Today important deposits are also found in Afghanistan, Australia, Brazil, China, Tibet, Israel, United States and Mexico. Historically, the Aztecs mined turquoise in an area now known as New Mexico and a significant amount of fine Turquoise still comes from Arizona, California and Nevada.
Throughout history Turquoise has been considered a precious stone by ancient Egyptian, Persian, and other Eastern cultures. In the ancient Persian myth, the sky-blue gemstones were earlier worn round the neck or wrist as protection against unnatural death. If they changed colour, the wearer was thought to have reason to fear the approach of doom. The Aztecs and other Mesoamerican peoples valued Turquoise very highly; Aztecs and many Native American cultures cherished turquoise for its healing and protective power, and it's power to attract beneficial spirits. It is extremely prized in Tibet, where it is considered more valuable than gold, and is sometimes worn one’s entire life as a dowry heirloom.
In many cultures of the Old and New Worlds, this gemstone has been esteemed for thousands of years as a holy stone, a bringer of good fortune or a protective talisman. A common belief shared by many of these civilizations held that turquoise possessed certain protective/ preventative qualities to fend off a disease or other misfortune. Turquoise was thought to change colour with the wearer's health and protect him or her from untoward forces. In more contemporary stone folklore, it is rumored to strengthen and align personal drive and aid in success, as well as protect good health and ease tension