Moldavite is an olive-green substance believed to have been formed through a meteor impact that happened 15 million years ago and is considered a type of Tektite (natural glass rocks up to a few centimeters in size, which most scientists argue were formed by the impact of large meteorites on Earth's surface). Tektites are among the "driest" rocks, with an average water content of 0.005%. This is very unusual, as most if not all of the craters where Tektites may have formed were underwater before impact. This suggests that the Tektites were formed under phenomenal temperature and pressure not normally found on the surface of the Earth. The first Tektites were found in 1787 in the Moldau River, hence their original name of "moldavites." Other color varieties of this natural glass have since been found in many different localities but the Moldau River in the Czech Republic is now the only known locality for green, transparent Tektite. Tektites are usually translucent and occur in a range of colors from green to brown. Their surfaces are usually uneven or rough, with a distinctive lumpy, jagged, or scarred texture. Tektites do not contain the crystallites found in Obsidian.
The age of Moldavites, a type of Tektite found in the Czech Republic, was determined to be 14 million years, which agrees well with the age determined for the Nordinger Ries crater (a few hundred kilometers away in Germany). Similar agreements exist between Tektites from the North American strewnfield and the Chesapeake Bay impact crater and between Tektites from the Ivory Coast strewnfield and the Lake Bosumtwi Crater. Tektites from Thailand have been carved as small, decorative objects worn in the belief that they give protection from evil.The estimated amount of Moldavite in existence is only 275 tons.Moldavite Tektite is famed as an important New Age crystal, rumored to encourage spiritual awareness, and connection with both higher realms and extraterrestrial communication. More common contemporary stone lore rumors Moldavite as stone of communication, and helps to release inner demons.
Moonstone is one of the modern June birthstones and an accepted gem for the 13th wedding anniversary. Moonstone is found in Australia, the United States, Madagascar, Mexico, and Sri Lanka. This gemstone was extremely popular in the times of "Art Nouveau", more than 100 years ago. Moonstone was used to decorate a striking amount of pieces of jewelry created by the famous French master-goldsmith René Lalique and his contemporaries. Old legends say Moonstone was used in jewelry by the Romans who believed that the stone was formed from the light of the moon. Moonstone is considered by many a sacred stone in India. Traditional stone lore rumors Moonstones have a deep connection with women, and aides in balancing hormones, helps relieve PMS, increases fertility, and eases the pain of childbirth. For men, it's said to help in opening up one’s emotional self.
Morganite is a pink/purple stone in the Beryl family. It was first discovered in Madagascar in 1910. In the first decade of the twentieth century, several new gemstone varieties were discovered in Pala, California. They include Kunzite, the pink variety of Spodumene; and Morganite, the pink variety of Beryl. Kunzite is named after the famous American gemologist, George Frederick Kunz, who spent most of his career as the chief gemologist at Tiffany & Co. Morganite was named in honor of the legendary financier and gem collector, J.P. Morgan. In fact it was Kunz who suggested naming the newly discovered Beryl after Morgan, who was Tiffany's largest customer.
Morganite belongs to the same gemstone family as Emerald, Aquamarine, Golden Beryl and Bixbite. Among these Beryls, Morganite and the raspberry-red Bixbite are the rarest. In fact, Bixbite is only found in the state of Utah in the USA. Morganite is not quite as scarce, but still counts as a rare variety. There has been some attempt in the jewelry trade to change the name of Morganite to "pink Emerald." Some scientists attribute Morganite's color to traces of Manganese, while other sources attribute the color to the element Caesium. Morganite's color can vary soft pink to violet to salmon or peach. Morganite deposits are found in Afghanistan, Brazil, China, Madagascar, Mozambique, Namibia, Zimbabwe and the USA (California and Maine). Morganite in contemporary stone lore is associated with increasing calm and deeper meditative states.
There are many types of Pearls:
Natural Pearls - made without human interference
Cultured Pearls- made when a foreign substance is intentionally inserted into a living oyster. This method was first used in 1893.
Baroque Pearls - pearls that have irregular shapes
Biwa Pearls - an irregular shaped pearl which forms in the freshwater of Lake Biwa, Japan
Blister Pearls - pearls which grow attached to the inside of the shell
Black Pearls - gray to black pearls
Freshwater Pearls - pearls which form in fresh water mollusks and resemble puffed rice
Mabe Pearls - cultivated blister pearls
Seed Pearls - small, tiny pearls used in Victorian jewelry and sewn on clothing)
Named in 1789 after Hendrik Von Prehn (1733-1785), a Dutch colonial governor is credited with discovering Prehenite in 1774 at the Cape of Good Hope in Africa. Prehnite is composed of aluminium, calcium and silicon with a few specimens containing small trace of iron as well. Gem quality prehnite is neon yellow-green. Contemporary stone lore rumors that Prehnite eases worries and restlessness, aids spirit communication and is a powerful dream stone.
Rubies have always been held in high esteem in Asian countries have always been considered a stone of nobility. Rubies were used to ornament armor, scabbards, and harnesses of noblemen in India and China. Rubies were laid beneath the foundation of buildings for the wealthy to secure good fortune to the structure.
Sapphire is the birthstone for those born in September and for the Zodiac, it is regarded as the stone for Taurus. Ruby and sapphire are the same material, the mineral Corundum, and the second hardest gemstone after Diamond. Red corundum is known as Ruby, while all other colors are referred to as Sapphire. While blue is the classic sapphire color, Sapphires are actually found in a wide range of colors, including yellow, pink and green. The coloring agents in blue Sapphire are iron and titanium and in violet stones, Vanadium. Small amounts of iron impurity will result in yellowish and greenish stones. Chromium will produce pinks and iron and Vanadium will produce orange tones as well. Rutile needle inclusions will result in a silky shine to the stone. If these needles are aligned in the same direction, then this causes the six-rayed star sapphire affect.Like rubies, sapphires can display a 6-point asterism called a “star.” Sapphires are considered one of the four Precious Stones; the Sapphire, the Emerald, the Ruby and the Diamond.
Sapphires come from Thailand, Sri Lanka, Madagascar, Tanzania, and the Kashmir region of India, and Burma. Today, Sri Lanka and Madagascar produce most of the fine sapphires on the market. Throughout history, Sapphires were gemstones of the highest level. In Folklore, the Sapphire was believed to be a talisman that would protect you against evil spirits and demons of the night. The ancients regarded star sapphires as a powerful talisman protecting travelers and seekers. In contemporary stone folklore, they are believed to enhance focus and creativity, and still to protect from evil spirits.
Historically, Smoky Quartz was most often seen as the material for the crystal balls used by fortune tellers.Smoky quartz in stone folklore is associated with grounding and protection.
Spinel is a family of stones, which in its pure form, is white. However, trace imperfections produce Spinel in virtually every color, the most valuable being deep red. Since these red Spinel look similar to Rubies, and are found in the same locations, it was impossible until the late 19th century to distinguish between the two when X-Ray tests proved the difference. It was found that many historical “Rubies” were later determined to actually be Spinel. The name comes from the Greek word, “spinther,” meaning “sparkling.” The folklore rumored metaphysical properties of Spinel depend on its color:
Black Spinel may spark independence; Grey Spinel may be good for communication; Green Spinel may inhibit fear; Pink Spinel may foster love; Peach Spinel may build self-esteem; Red Spinel may increase vitality and confidence. Spinel is found in Burma, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Tanzania, and Afghanistan.
Tanzanite is a rare gem of the Zoisite family. In its rough state it is reddish-brown, however heating it produces beautiful shades of violet and blue that are permanent. Tanzanite is a very recently discovered stone, and is only found in one mine in Tanzania, East Africa. No other deposits have been discovered and since the Tanzanian discovery in 1967. Prices of Tanzanite have skyrocketed in the past decade, since the mine is quickly depleting and there is no other known source. Contemporary stone lore sometimes calls Tanzanite the “work-a-holics stone,” as it is rumored to decrease anxiety, relieve stress, and help one “take it easy.”